|Grades of materials used for
Pipes – Fittings – Flanges – Valves – Stud Bolts
ASTM standards define the specific manufacturing process of the material and determine the exact chemical composition of pipes, fittings and flanges, through percentages of the permitted quantities of carbon, magnesium, nickel, etc., and are indicated by “Grade”.
For example, a carbon steel pipe can be identified with Grade A or B, a stainless-steel pipe with Grade TP304 or Grade TP321, a carbon steel fitting with Grade WPB etc..
Below you will find as an example 3 tables with chemical requirements for:
Furthermore, a table with frequently used ASTM Grades, arranged on Pipes, Fittings, Flanges, Valves, Bolts & Nuts, which belong together as a group.
As you may be have noted, in the table below, ASTM A105 has no Grade. Sometimes ASTM A105N is described;
N stands not for Grade, but for normalized. Normalizing is a type of heat treatment, applicable to ferrous metals only. The purpose of normalizing is to remove the internal stresses induced by heat treating, casting, forming etc..
Chemical requirements composition, %
|Flanges according to ASTM A182|
Grades F304, F304L, and F316L shall have a maximum Nitrogen content of 0.10%.
|Pipes according to ASTM A312|
For small diameter or thin walls or both, where many drawing passes are required, a Carbon maximum of 0.040% is necessary in grades TP304L and TP316L. Small outside diameter tubes are defined as those less than 0.50 in. [12.7 mm] in outside diameter and light wall tubes as those less than 0.049 in. [1.20 mm] in average wall thickness (0.044 in. [1.10 mm] in minimum wall thickness).
|Fittings according to ASTM A403|
|Grade||C (1)||Mn (1)||P (1)||S (1)||Si (1)||Ni||Cr||Mo|
|WP316L||0.030 (2)||2.0||0.045||0.030||1.0||10.0-14.0 (3)||16.0-18.0||2.0-3.0|
(1) Maximum, unless otherwise indicated.
(2) For small diameter or thin walls or both, where many drawing passes are required, a Carbon maximum of 0.040% is necessary in grades TP304L and TP316L. Small outside diameter tubes are defined as those less than 0.50 in. [12.7 mm] in outside diameter and light wall tubes as those less than 0.049 in. [1.20 mm] in average wall thickness (0.044 in. [1.10 mm] in minimum wall thickness).
(3) On pierced tubing, the Nickel may be 11.0-16.0%.
|Frequently used ASTM Grades|
|Material||Pipes||Fittings||Flanges||Valves||Bolts & Nuts|
|Carbon Steel||A106 Gr A||A234 Gr WPA||A105||A216 Gr WCB||A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
|A106 Gr B||A234 Gr WPB||A105||A216 Gr WCB|
|A106 Gr C||A234 Gr WPC||A105||A216 Gr WCB|
|A335 Gr P1||A234 Gr WP1||A182 Gr F1||A217 Gr WC1||A193 Gr B7
A194 Gr 2H
|A335 Gr P11||A234 Gr WP11||A182 Gr F11||A217 Gr WC6|
|A335 Gr P12||A234 Gr WP12||A182 Gr F12||A217 Gr WC6|
|A335 Gr P22||A234 Gr WP22||A182 Gr F22||A217 Gr WC9|
|A335 Gr P5||A234 Gr WP5||A182 Gr F5||A217 Gr C5|
|A335 Gr P9||A234 Gr WP9||A182 Gr F9||A217 Gr C12|
|A333 Gr 6||A420 Gr WPL6||A350 Gr LF2||A352 Gr LCB||A320 Gr L7
A194 Gr 7
|A333 Gr 3||A420 Gr WPL3||A350 Gr LF3||A352 Gr LC3|
|A312 Gr TP304||A403 Gr WP304||A182 Gr F304||A182 Gr F304||A193 Gr B8
A194 Gr 8
|A312 Gr TP316||A403 Gr WP316||A182 Gr F316||A182 Gr F316|
|A312 Gr TP321||A403 Gr WP321||A182 Gr F321||A182 Gr F321|
|A312 Gr TP347||A403 Gr WP347||A182 Gr F347||A182 Gr F347|
Bolts & Nuts